Waste heat recovery: Waste heat provided by the power plant of Lampedusa for the operation of the Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) process allows low energy consumption of the entire process.
Recovery of magnesium and calcium with the Multi Feed–Plug Flow Reactor (MF-PFR): The presence of these ions could compromise the functioning of the technologies downstream (i.e. the scaling of the membranes in the Electrodialysis unit);
Quality of the chemicals produced: Low concentrations of sodium hydroxide produced by the Electrodialysis with Bipolar Membranes (EDBM) unit could not be sufficient for the MF-PFR target operation;
Employment of waste heat: The waste heat produced within the power plant could not fit all the requirements from the MED unit.